Literature references

Listed below you will find literature used for the information on the site in chronological order (oldest first). It is not intended to be an exhaustive index of all literary resources.

Laboratory animals

  • Green, E.L., Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, McGraw-Hill. Inc., 1966.
  • Barnett, S.A., The rat — a study in behavior, The University of Chicago Press, 1975.
  • Foster, H.L., J. D. Small, J.G. Fox, The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Academic Press, New York 1981.
  • Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science - Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources — Commission Research Council, Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 1991.
  • Van Zutphen, L.F.M., Baumans, V. and Beynen, A.C., Principles of Laboratory Animal Science, second edition, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2001.
  • Hau, J. and Van Hoosier, G.L., Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Volume I: Essential Principles and Practices, CRC Press, London, 2002.
  • Hau, J. and Van Hoosier, G.L., Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Volume II: Animal models, CRC Press, London, 2003.
  • Wolfensohn, S., Lloyd,M., Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and welfare, third edition, Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, 2003.

Pain, discomfort, recognizing clinical signs and euthanasia

  • Kitchell, R.L., H.H. Erickson, E. Carstens, L.E. Davis (1983). Animals pain, perception and Alleviation, American Physiological Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Universities Federation For Animal welfare, Guidelines on the care of laboratory animals and their use for scientific purposes II — Pain, analgesia and anaesthesia HMSO, London, 1989.
  • Committee on Pain and distress in Laboratory Animals — Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources — Commission on Life Sciences — National Research Council, Recognition and Alleviation of Pain & Distress in Laboratory Animals, National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 1992.
  • Morton DB. (1997). A scheme for the recognition and assessment of adverse effects in animals. In: Animal Alternatives, Welfare and ethics. Van Zutphen LFM & Balls M (eds.). Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. Pp. 235-240.
  • Close, B. et al. Report of Working Party. Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals, Part 1, Laboratory Animals (1996) 30: 293-316) and Part 2 Laboratory Animals (1997) 31: 1-32.
  • AVMA Panel on euthanasia (2000). 2000 Report of the Euthanasia Panel on Euthanasia. JAVMA, 218 (5), 669-696. 
  • Hellebrekers, L.J. (editor), Animal Pain — A practice-oriented approach to an effective pain control in animals, van der Wees uitgeverij, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2000.
  • Flecknell P, Waterman-Pearson A. (2000). Pain Management in Animals. W.B.Saunders, London.
  • Hawkins P. (2002).Recognizing and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: a survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations. Lab Anim.36(4): 378-95.
  • EFSA - AHAW Panel. Aspects of biology and welfare of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. EFSA Scientific Report, EFSA-Q-2004-105, pp. 64-136, Parma (I), 2004.

Reports/magazines/books: specific humane endpoints

•    Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen and David B. Morton (editors), Humane Endpoints in Animal Experiments for Biomedical Research — Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 November 1998, Zeist, The Netherlands, The Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited, United Kingdom, 1999 
•    Richmond, J. — Criteria for humane endpoints, pp.26-32
•    Bouwmeester, J., M. van Dijk, D. Tibboel — Human neonates and pain, pp. 20- 25
•    Cussler, K., D.B. Morton, C.F.M. Hendriksen — Humane endpoints in vaccine research and quality control, pp.95-101
•    Hau, J. — Humane endpoints and the importance of training, pp. 71-74
•    Mench, J. — Defining endpoints: the role of the animal care committee, pp. 133- 138
•    Lloyd, M.H., S.E. Wolfensohn — Practical use of distress scoring systems in the application of humane endpoints, pp. 48-53
•    Kramer, K., F.A.A. van Acker, S.A.B.E. van Acker, J.A. Grimbergen. W.J.F. van der Vijgh, A. Bast — Using telemetry to study the effect of protectors on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in freely-moving mice, pp. 66-70
•    Kinter, L., D.K. Johnson — Remote monitoring of experimental endpoints in animal using radiotelemetry and bioimpedance technologies, pp. 58-65
•    Fentener van Vlissingen, J.M., M.H.M. Kuijpers, E.C.M. van Oostrum, R.B. Beems, J.E. van Dijk — Retrospective evaluation of clinical signs, pathology and related discomfort in chronic studies, pp. 89-94
•    Becker, J.M., S. de Marie, I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg — Clinical signs predicting imminent death in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, pp. 127-132
•    Hendriksen, C.F.M., B. Steen, J. Visser, K. Cussler, D. Morton, F. Streijger — The evaluation of humane endpoints in pertussis vaccine potency testing, pp. 106-113

OECD. (2000) Guidance Document: Recognition, Assessment and Use of Clinical Signs as Humane Endpoints for Experimental Animals Used in Safety Evaluation.  

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Humane Endpoints for Animals Used in Biomedical Research and Testing, ILAR Journal, 2000, 41 (2).

•    Carstens E, Moberg GP. Recognizing pain and distress in laboratory animals, pp. 62-71.
•    Toth LA. Defining the moribund condition as an experimental endpoint for animal research, pp. 72-79. · Morton DB. A systematic approach for establishing humane endpoints, pp. 80-86.
•    Wallace J. Humane endpoints and cancer research, pp. 87-93.
•    Dennis MB Jr. Humane endpoints for genetically engineered animal models, pp 94-98.
•    Olfert ED, Godson DL. Humane endpoints for infectious disease animal models, pp. 99-104
•    Hendriksen CF, Steen B. refinement of vaccine potency testing with the use of humane endpoints, pp.105-113.
•    Sass N. Humane endpoints and acute toxicity testing, pp.114-23.


Relevant articles

  • Kitchell, R.L., H.H. Erickson, E. Carstens, L.E. Davis — Animals pain, perception and Alleviation, American Physiological Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 1983
  • Redgate, E.S., M. Deutsch, S.S. Boggs — Time and death of CNS tumor-bearing rats can be reliably predicted by body weight-loss patterns, Laboratory Animal Science, Volume 41, Number 3, June 1991
  • Kuijpers M.H.M. en Walvoort H.C. (1991). discomfort and distress in rodents during chronic studies in animals in biomedical research. In: Animals in Biomedical Research, Replacement, Reduction and refinement: Present Possibilities and Future Prospects.
  • Hendriksen CFM & Koeter HWBM (eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 247-263. Rodent Protection Test Working Party. (1994). Guidelines for the welfare of animals in rodent protection tests. A report from the Rodent Protection Test Working Party. Lab Anim. 28(1):13-8.
  • Mellor, D.J., D.B. Morton (moderators), (invited participants: V. Baumans, P.A. Flecknell, C.F.M. Hendriksen) — Humane endpoints in research and testing — Synopsis of the workshop, Elsevier Science BV, 1997, Animal Alternatives, Welfare and ethics, L.F.M. van Zutphen, M. Balls, editors
  • Kort, W.J., J.M. Hekking-Weijma, M.T. TenKate, V. Storm, R. van Strik (1997). A microchip implant system as a method to determine body temperature of terminally ill rats and mice, Laboratory Animals 32, 260-269.
  • Derrell Clark, J., D.R. Rager, J.P. Calpin, Animal well-being — specific assessment criteria, Laboratory Animal Science, Volume 47, Number 6, December 1997
  • Wright AJ, Phillpotts RJ. (1998). Humane endpoints are an objective measure of morbidity in Venezuelan encephalomyelitis virus infection of mice. Arch Virol. 143(6):1155-62.
  • Ullman-Culleré, M.H., C.J. Foltz — body condition scoring: A rapid and accurate method for assessing health status in mice, Laboratory Animal Science, Volume 49, Number 3, June 1999
  • Vlach KD, Boles JW, Stiles BG. (2000). Telemetric evaluation of body temperature and physical activity as predictors of mortality in a murine model of staphylococcal enterotoxic shock. Comp Med. 50(2):160-6.
  • Kramer, K. Applications and Evaluation of Radio-telemetry in Small Laboratory Animals — Krips B.V., Meppel, 2000 (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) van Loo, P. Male Management — Coping with aggression problems in male laboratory mice, Atlanta BVDA, Diest, Belgium, 2001 (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht).
  • Stokes WS. (2002). Humane endpoints for laboratory animals used in regulatory testing. ILAR J. 2002;43 Suppl:S31-8.
  • Aldred AJ, Cha MC, Meckling-Gill KA. (2002). Determination of a humane endpoint in the L1210 model of murine leukemia. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 41(2):24-7.
  • Turner PV, Smiler KL, Hargaden M, Koch MA. (2003). Refinements in the care and use of animals in toxicology studies-regulation, validation, and progress. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 42(6):8-15.
  • Stasiak KL, Maul D, French E, Hellyer PW, VandeWoude S. (2003) Species-specific assessment of pain in laboratory animals. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 42(4):13-20.
  • Hartinger J, Kulbs D, Volkers P, Cussler K. (2003). Suitability of temperature-sensitive transponders to measure body temperature during animal experiments required for regulatory tests. Altex. 20(2): 65-70.
  • Jegstrup I, Thon R, Hansen AK, Hoitinga MR. (2003). Characterization of transgenic mice - a comparison of protocols for welfare evaluation and phenotype characterization of mice with a suggestion on a future certificate of instruction. Lab Anim. 37(1): 1-9.
  • Medina LV. (2004). How to balance humane endpoints, scientific data collection and appropriate veterinary interventions in animal studies. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 43(5):60-62.
  • Kobaek-Larsen M, Rud L, Oestergaard Soerensen F, Ritskes-Hoitinga J. (2004). Laparoscopy of rats with experimental liver metastases: a method to assess new humane endpoints. Lab Anim. 38(2):162-8.
  • Newsom DM, Bolgos GL, Colby L, Nemzek JA. (2004). Comparison of body surface temperature measurement and conventional methods for measuring temperature in the mouse. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 43(5): 13-8.
  • Nemzek JA, Xiao HY, Minard AE, Bolgos GL, Remick FG. (2004). Humane endpoints in shock research. Shock. 21(1): 17-25.
  • Hickman DL, Swan, M. (2010). Use of a Body Condition Score Technique to Assess Health Status in a Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease, Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 49 (2): 155-159.
  • Calvano SE (2004). Humane endpoints in shock research, Shock. 22(2): 189; author reply 189-90
  • National Research Council (US) Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals, (2008). Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals, Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
  • National Research Council (US) Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals (2009). Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals, Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
  • Sneddon LU (2009). pain perception in fish: indicators and endpoints, ILAR J. 50(4): 338-42.
  • Jennings M, Morton DB, Charton E, Cooper J, Hendriksen C, Martin S, Pearce MC, Price S, Redhead K, Reed N, Simmons H, Spencer S, Willingale H. (2010). Application of the Three Rs to challenge assays used in vaccine testing: tenth report of the VAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement, Biologicals 38(6): 684-95.
  • Douce G, Goulding D. Refinement of the hamster model of Clostridium difficile disease. (2010). Methods Mol Biol. 646:215-27.
  • Ray MA, Johnston NA, Verhulst S, Trammell RA, Toth LA (2010). Identification of markers for imminent death in mice used in longevity and aging research, J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 49(3): 282-8.
  • Workman P, Aboagye EO, Balkwill F, Balmain A, Bruder G, Chaplin DJ, Double JA, Everitt J, Farningham DA, Glennie MJ, Kelland LR, Robinson V, Stratford IJ, Tozer GM, Watson S, Wedge SR, Eccles SA; Committee of the National cancer Research Institute (2010). Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research, Br J Cancer. 102(11): 1555-77.
  • Hendriksen CFM, Cussler K, Morton D. (2010). Use of Humane Endpoints to minimise suffering.  In: The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use: Refinement, Reduction, and Research. Eds. Bryan Howard, Timo Nevalainen and Gemma Perretta. CRC Press, US. ISBN 9781439824924. 
  • Hendriksen CFM (2011). Humane endpoints in vaccine potency testing. Procedia in Vaccinology. 5: 221-226.
  • Trammell R.A., Cox L, Toth LA (2012). Markers for heightened monitoring, imminent death, and euthanasia in aged inbred mice, Comp Med. 2012;62(3):172-8.
  • Franco NH, Correia-Neves M, Olsson IA. (2012). Animal welfare in studies on murine tuberculosis: assessing progress over a 12-year period and the need for further improvement. PLoS One 7(10):e47723.
  • Stokes W, McFarland R, Kulpa-Eddy J, Gatewood D, Levis R, Halder M, Pulle G, Kojima H, Casey W, Gaydamaka A, Miller T, Brown K, Lewis C, Chapsal JM, Bruckner L, Gairola S, Kamphuis E, Rupprecht CE, Wunderli P, McElhinney L, De Mattia F, Gamoh K, Hill R, Reed D, Doelling V, Johnson N, Allen D, Rinckel L, Jones B. (2012). Report on the international workshop on alternative methods for human and veterinary rabies vaccine testing: state of the science and planning the way forward. Biologicals 40(5):369-81.